Issue: (1) Whether legislative fact-finding by an individual Member of Congress is a legislative act protected by the Speech or Debate Clause; (2) whether a Member of Congress' official actions to develop, evaluate, and draft legislation that are undertaken prior to the formal introduction of a bill are legislative acts protected by the Speech or Debate Clause; and (3) whether a Member of Congress can waive the protections of the Speech or Debate Clause only by explicitly and unequivocally renouncing them.
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