Issue: Whether police officers in the more than 20 states that have laws that prohibit
sending text messages on a cellphone while driving,
but that allow drivers to use their cellphones for other
purposes, such as navigation or playing music, have
reasonable suspicion under the Fourth Amendment to
initiate an investigatory traffic stop, when they
observe a driver briefly holding and manipulating a
cellphone, in a manner that does not indicate whether
the cellphone is being used for a lawful or prohibited
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